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Volume 4, issue 3 | Copyright
SOIL, 4, 195-212, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Original research article 07 Sep 2018

Original research article | 07 Sep 2018

Physical, chemical, and mineralogical attributes of a representative group of soils from the eastern Amazon region in Brazil

Edna Santos de Souza1, Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes1, Anderson Martins De Souza Braz1, Fábio Júnior de Oliveira1, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni2, and Milton César Costa Campos3 Edna Santos de Souza et al.
  • 1Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Federal Rural University of Amazon (ICA-UFRA), C. P. 917, Belém, 66077-530, PA, Brazil
  • 2Department of Soil Science, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo (ESALQ-USP), C. P. 9, Piracicaba, 13418-900, SP, Brazil
  • 3Institute of Education, Agriculture and Environment, Federal University of Amazonas, (IEAA) C. P. 786, Humaitá, 69800-000, AM, Brazil

Abstract. Amazonian soils are heterogeneous. However, few studies have been carried out in the Amazon, mainly because of its considerable size, which complicates the collection of data and the ability to plan for the sustainable use of natural resources. In this study, the physical, chemical, and mineralogical attributes of soils in the state of Pará, Brazil, were characterized by examining the particle size, fertility, silicon extracted by sodium hydroxide, iron, and aluminum, and manganese extracted by sulfuric acid, sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite, and ammonium oxalate+oxalic acid. A descriptive analysis, multivariate principal component analysis, and cluster analysis were performed. The soils had low concentrations of bioavailable P, Ca2+, Mg2+, and K and had high concentrations of Al3+, Si, and Al oxide in the Cambisols. Concentrations of Fe and Mn oxides were higher in both the Cambisols and Nitosols, which are rich in oxidic minerals. The multivariate analysis indicated an association between the organic carbon content and pH, P, Ca, Mg, and K concentrations. An additional association was observed between clay, potential acidity, and the Fe and Al oxide concentrations.

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Short summary
The study refers to a survey of the attributes of the main soil classes of the state of Pará, an eastern Amazon region in Brazil. These soils have good potential for agricultural use under natural conditions. In this study we observed that the soils are predominantly kaolinitic, but have relatively low aluminum and organic matter contents, with huge textural variability. The results enable a better understanding of eastern Amazonian soils, whose area reaches more than 1.2 million km2.
The study refers to a survey of the attributes of the main soil classes of the state of Pará,...